The Boxer Protocol was an unequal treaty that recognised the right of foreign powers to station troops in China. Many believe it precipitated the fall of the Qing dynasty. The memories are bitter. But China today is the world’s second-largest economy, and a global power that is feared by others. It cannot continue to be haunted by the phantom of an Eight Nation Alliance that causes it to lash out at other countries with angry criticism and retaliatory measures for perceived slights.